Dyslexia » What is Dyslexia?

What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.  It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.  These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.” (International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, November 2002)
Students suspected of having dyslexia are identified through a formal evaluation process in Hondo ISD. This evaluation may be conducted specifically to determine if a student has dyslexia through a Section 504 evaluation or as part of an evaluation for special education services.  Following the completion of the evaluation, a written report is generated and reviewed by either the 504 or ARD committee, depending on the nature of the referral. Independent educational evaluations for dyslexia will be considered. 
All Hondo ISD campuses offer a continuum of services for students with dyslexia. Some students may only require instructional accommodation through Section 504, others may need direct intensive instruction in reading, and others may require the much more intensive supports and services of special education. Because dyslexia ranges from very mild to very severe, it is crucial that individual needs are considered when planning for student success. Many students with dyslexia are served through general education with or without a 504 plan. 
If you have concerns that your child may have dyslexia, please contact your child's teacher, counselor, or principal to find out more about the Child Study Team (CST) process.
Register Here
The Preschool Years
  • Delay in learning to talk
  • Difficulty with rhyming
  • Difficulty pronouncing words
  • Poor auditory memory for nursery rhymes and chants
  • Difficulty adding new vocabulary words
  • Inability to recall the right word
  • Trouble learning and naming letters and numbers
  • Remembering the letters in their name
  • Aversion to print
Kindergarten and First Grade
  • Difficulty breaking words into smaller parts
  • Difficulty identifying and manipulating sounds in syllables
  • Difficulty remembering the names of letters and recalling their corresponding sounds
  • Difficulty in decoding single words
  • Difficulty spelling words the way they sound or remembering letter sequences in very common words
Second and Third Grade
  • Difficulty recognizing common sight words
  • Difficulty decoding single words
  • Difficulty recalling the correct sounds for letters and letter patterns in reading
  • Difficulty connecting speech sounds with appropriate letter or combinations
  • Omitting letters in words for spelling
  • Difficulty reading fluently
  • Difficulty in decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics
  • Reliance on picture clues, story theme or guessing at words
  • Difficulty in written expression
Fourth through Sixth Grade
Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic along with the following:
  • Difficulty reading aloud
  • Avoidance of reading
  • Difficulty reading fluently
  • Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics
  • Acquisition of less vocabulary due to reduced independent reading
  • Use of less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell than more appropriate words
  • Reliance on listening rather than reading for comprehension
Middle and High School
Many of the previously described behaviors remain problematic along with the following:
  • Difficulty with the volume of reading and written work
  • Frustration with the amount of time required and energy expended for reading
  • Difficulty reading fluently
  • Difficulty decoding unfamiliar words in sentences using knowledge of phonics
  • Difficulty with written assignments
  • Tendency to avoid reading
  • Difficulty learning a foreign language
Texas Dyslexia Handbook (2018)
All Kinds of Minds
by Melvin Levine
Students come to understand their mind's unique features, learn about getting help from others, helping themselves, and building on their strengths.     
How to Reach & Teach Children & Teens with Dyslexia
by Cynthia Stowe
This comprehensive, practical resource gives educators at all levels essential information, techniques, and tools for understanding dyslexia and adapting teaching methods in all subject areas to meet the learning style, social, and emotional needs of students who have dyslexia. Special features include over 50 full-page activity sheets that can be photocopied for immediate use and interviews with students and adults who have had personal experience with dyslexia. Organized into twenty sections, information covers everything from ten principles of instruction to teaching reading, handwriting, spelling, writing, math, everyday skills, and even covers the adult with dyslexia.     
Overcoming Dyslexia
by Sally Shaywitz
Drawing on recent scientific breakthroughs-many of them in her own laboratory, Dr. Shaywitz discusses early diagnosis in young children as well as the dyslexia in older children, young adults, and adults. Explaining the mechanisms underlying dyslexia and how research led to effective treatments for each age group, Dr. Shaywitz instructs parents in what they can do year-by-year, grade-by-grade, step-by-step for a dyslexic child. She lays out a home program for enhanced reading; guides parents in choosing the best school for their child and in working with teachers; and suggests ways of raising and preserving the child's self-esteem.      
Parenting A Struggling Reader
by Louisa Moats and Susan Hall
The first completely comprehensive, practical guide for recognizing, diagnosing, and overcoming any childhood reading difficulty. According to the National Institute of Health, ten million of our nation’s children (approximately 17 percent) have trouble learning to read. While headlines warn about the nation’s reading crisis, Susan Hall (whose son was diagnosed with dyslexia) and Louisa Moats have become crusaders for action. The result of their years of research and personal experience, this book provides a revolutionary road map for any parent facing this challenging problem.      
Straight Talk About Reading
by Louisa Moats and Susan Hall
Today's parents are increasingly concerned about the reading and spelling skills taught in schools and are taking charge of their children's education. Full of ideas and suggestions­­--from innovative preschool exercises to techniques that older children can use to increase reading speed and comprehension-this book will instantly help any parent lay a solid foundation for their child's formative educational years.    
Taking Charge of ADHD
by Russell Barkley, PhD.
A step-by-step plan for behavior management that has helped thousands of children. Information on medications, including coverage of Strattera and extended-release stimulants. Strategies that help children succeed at school and in social situations. Advances in research on the causes of ADHD. Practical advice on managing stress and keeping peace in the family. Descriptions of books, organizations, and Internet resources that families can trust.     
The Dyslexic Scholar
by Kathleen Nosek
Veteran educator Kathleen Nosek tells parents the secrets to successfully navigating today's school system and ensuring that dyslexic children receive the quality education they are entitled to by law. Includes a definition of dyslexia, how to identify it, how to get your child evaluated and more.